Code Quality Rank: L5
Monthly Downloads: 156,807
Programming language: Ruby
License: MIT License
Latest version: v2.3.0

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Appraisal integrates with bundler and rake to test your library against different versions of dependencies in repeatable scenarios called "appraisals." Appraisal is designed to make it easy to check for regressions in your library without interfering with day-to-day development using Bundler.


In your package's .gemspec:

s.add_development_dependency "appraisal"

Note that gems must be bundled in the global namespace. Bundling gems to a local location or vendoring plugins is not supported. If you do not want to pollute the global namespace, one alternative is RVM's Gemsets.


Setting up appraisal requires an Appraisals file (similar to a Gemfile) in your project root, named "Appraisals" (note the case), and some slight changes to your project's Rakefile.

An Appraisals file consists of several appraisal definitions. An appraisal definition is simply a list of gem dependencies. For example, to test with a few versions of Rails:

appraise "rails-3" do
  gem "rails", "3.2.14"

appraise "rails-4" do
  gem "rails", "4.0.0"

The dependencies in your Appraisals file are combined with dependencies in your Gemfile, so you don't need to repeat anything that's the same for each appraisal. If something is specified in both the Gemfile and an appraisal, the version from the appraisal takes precedence.


Once you've configured the appraisals you want to use, you need to install the dependencies for each appraisal:

$ bundle exec appraisal install

This will resolve, install, and lock the dependencies for that appraisal using bundler. Once you have your dependencies set up, you can run any command in a single appraisal:

$ bundle exec appraisal rails-3 rake test

This will run rake test using the dependencies configured for Rails 3. You can also run each appraisal in turn:

$ bundle exec appraisal rake test

If you want to use only the dependencies from your Gemfile, just run rake test as normal. This allows you to keep running with the latest versions of your dependencies in quick test runs, but keep running the tests in older versions to check for regressions.

In the case that you want to run all the appraisals by default when you run rake, you can override your default Rake task by put this into your Rakefile:

  task :default => :appraisal

(Appraisal sets APPRAISAL_INITIALIZED environment variable when it runs your process. We put a check here to ensure that appraisal rake command should run your real default task, which usually is your test task.)

Note that this may conflict with your CI setup if you decide to split the test into multiple processes by Appraisal and you are using rake to run tests by default. Please see Travis CI Integration for more detail.


appraisal clean                  # Remove all generated gemfiles and lockfiles from gemfiles folder
appraisal generate               # Generate a gemfile for each appraisal
appraisal help [COMMAND]         # Describe available commands or one specific command
appraisal install                # Resolve and install dependencies for each appraisal
appraisal list                   # List the names of the defined appraisals
appraisal update [LIST_OF_GEMS]  # Remove all generated gemfiles and lockfiles, resolve, and install dependencies again
appraisal version                # Display the version and exit

Under the hood

Running appraisal install generates a Gemfile for each appraisal by combining your root Gemfile with the specific requirements for each appraisal. These are stored in the gemfiles directory, and should be added to version control to ensure that the same versions are always used.

When you prefix a command with appraisal, the command is run with the appropriate Gemfile for that appraisal, ensuring the correct dependencies are used.

Removing Gems using Appraisal

It is common while managing multiple Gemfiles for dependencies to become deprecated and no longer necessary, meaning they need to be removed from the Gemfile for a specific appraisal. To do this, use the remove_gem declaration within the necessary appraise block in your Appraisals file.

Example Usage


gem 'rails', '~> 4.2'

group :test do
  gem 'rspec', '~> 4.0'
  gem 'test_after_commit'


appraise 'rails-5' do
  gem 'rails', '~> 5.2'

  group :test do
    remove_gem :test_after_commit

Using the Appraisals file defined above, this is what the resulting Gemfile will look like:

gem 'rails', '~> 5.2'

group :test do
  gem 'rspec', '~> 4.0'

Version Control

When using Appraisal, we recommend you check in the Gemfiles that Appraisal generates within the gemfiles directory, but exclude the lockfiles there (*.gemfile.lock.) The Gemfiles are useful when running your tests against a continuous integration server such as Travis CI.

Travis CI integration

If you're using Appraisal and using Travis CI, we're recommending you to setup Travis to run the test against multiple generated Gemfiles. This can be done by using gemfile setting:

# In .travis.yml
  - gemfiles/3.0.gemfile
  - gemfiles/3.1.gemfile
  - gemfiles/3.2.gemfile

Please note that if you've set your default rake task to run the test against all versions of its dependency, you might have to set a script setting:

script: "bundle exec rake test"

That will make sure that each of the test sub-job are not getting run more than one time.

You can also run your tests against multiple versions of Ruby locally, just like running on Travis CI, by using WWTD.

Circle CI Integration

In Circle CI you can override the default testing behaviour to customize your testing. Using this feature you can configure appraisal to execute your tests.

In order to this you can put the following configuration in your circle.yml file:

    - bundle exec appraisal install
    - bundle exec appraisal rake db:create
    - bundle exec appraisal rake db:migrate
    - bundle exec appraisal rspec

Notice that we are running an rspec suite. You can customize your testing command in the override section and use your favourite one.



Appraisal is maintained and funded by thoughtbot, inc

Thank you to all the contributors

The names and logos for thoughtbot are trademarks of thoughtbot, inc.


Appraisal is Copyright © 2010-2013 Joe Ferris and thoughtbot, inc. It is free software, and may be redistributed under the terms specified in the MIT-LICENSE file.

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the Appraisal README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.