Resque-scheduler is an extension to Resque that adds support for queueing items in the future.

Job scheduling is supported in two different way: Recurring (scheduled) and Delayed.

Scheduled jobs are like cron jobs, recurring on a regular basis. Delayed jobs are resque jobs that you want to run at some point in the future. The syntax is pretty explanatory:

Code Quality Rank: L4
Monthly Downloads: 279,445
Programming language: Ruby
License: MIT License
Latest version: v4.6.0

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Resque-scheduler is an extension to Resque that adds support for queueing items in the future.

Job scheduling is supported in two different ways: Recurring (scheduled) and Delayed.

Scheduled jobs are like cron jobs, recurring on a regular basis. Delayed jobs are resque jobs that you want to run at some point in the future. The syntax is pretty explanatory:

Resque.enqueue_in(5.days, SendFollowupEmail, argument) # runs a job in 5 days, calling SendFollowupEmail.perform(argument)
# or
Resque.enqueue_at(5.days.from_now, SomeJob, argument) # runs a job at a specific time, calling SomeJob.perform(argument)


This README covers what most people need to know. If you're looking for details on individual methods, you might want to try the rdoc.


To install:

gem install resque-scheduler

If you use a Gemfile:

gem 'resque-scheduler'

Adding the resque:scheduler rake task:

require 'resque/scheduler/tasks'

Rake integration

By default, resque-scheduler depends on the "resque:setup" rake task. Since you probably already have this task, lets just put our configuration there. resque-scheduler pretty much needs to know everything resque needs to know.

# Resque tasks
require 'resque/tasks'
require 'resque/scheduler/tasks'

namespace :resque do
  task :setup do
    require 'resque'

    # you probably already have this somewhere
    Resque.redis = 'localhost:6379'

  task :setup_schedule => :setup do
    require 'resque-scheduler'

    # If you want to be able to dynamically change the schedule,
    # uncomment this line.  A dynamic schedule can be updated via the
    # Resque::Scheduler.set_schedule (and remove_schedule) methods.
    # When dynamic is set to true, the scheduler process looks for
    # schedule changes and applies them on the fly.
    # Note: This feature is only available in >=2.0.0.
    # Resque::Scheduler.dynamic = true

    # The schedule doesn't need to be stored in a YAML, it just needs to
    # be a hash.  YAML is usually the easiest.
    Resque.schedule = YAML.load_file('your_resque_schedule.yml')

    # If your schedule already has +queue+ set for each job, you don't
    # need to require your jobs.  This can be an advantage since it's
    # less code that resque-scheduler needs to know about. But in a small
    # project, it's usually easier to just include you job classes here.
    # So, something like this:
    require 'jobs'

  task :scheduler => :setup_schedule

The scheduler rake task is responsible for both queueing items from the schedule and polling the delayed queue for items ready to be pushed on to the work queues. For obvious reasons, this process never exits.

rake resque:scheduler

or, if you want to load the environment first:

rake environment resque:scheduler

Standalone Executable

The scheduler may also be run via a standalone resque-scheduler executable, which will be available once the gem is installed.

# Get some help
resque-scheduler --help

The executable accepts options via option flags as well as via environment variables.

Environment Variables

Both the Rake task and standalone executable support the following environment variables:

  • APP_NAME - Application name used in procline ($0) (default empty)
  • BACKGROUND - Run in the background if non-empty (via Process.daemon, if supported) (default false)
  • DYNAMIC_SCHEDULE - Enables dynamic scheduling if non-empty (default false)
  • RAILS_ENV - Environment to use in procline ($0) (default empty)
  • INITIALIZER_PATH - Path to a Ruby file that will be loaded before requiring resque and resque/scheduler (default empty).
  • RESQUE_SCHEDULER_INTERVAL - Interval in seconds for checking if a scheduled job must run (coerced with Kernel#Float()) (default 5)
  • LOGFILE - Log file name (default empty, meaning $stdout)
  • LOGFORMAT - Log output format to use (either 'text' or 'json', default 'text')
  • PIDFILE - If non-empty, write process PID to file (default empty)
  • QUIET - Silence most output if non-empty (equivalent to a level of MonoLogger::FATAL, default false)
  • VERBOSE - Maximize log verbosity if non-empty (equivalent to a level of MonoLogger::DEBUG, default false)

Resque Pool integration

For normal work with the resque-pool gem, add the following task to wherever tasks are kept, such as ./lib/tasks/resque.rake:

task 'resque:pool:setup' do
  Resque::Pool.after_prefork do |job|

Delayed jobs

Delayed jobs are one-off jobs that you want to be put into a queue at some point in the future. The classic example is sending email:

  user_id: current_user.id

This will store the job for 5 days in the resque delayed queue at which time the scheduler process will pull it from the delayed queue and put it in the appropriate work queue for the given job and it will be processed as soon as a worker is available (just like any other resque job).

NOTE: The job does not fire exactly at the time supplied. Rather, once that time is in the past, the job moves from the delayed queue to the actual resque work queue and will be completed as workers are free to process it.

Also supported is Resque.enqueue_at which takes a timestamp to queue the job, and Resque.enqueue_at_with_queue which takes both a timestamp and a queue name:

  user_id: current_user.id

The delayed queue is stored in redis and is persisted in the same way the standard resque jobs are persisted (redis writing to disk). Delayed jobs differ from scheduled jobs in that if your scheduler process is down or workers are down when a particular job is supposed to be queue, they will simply "catch up" once they are started again. Jobs are guaranteed to run (provided they make it into the delayed queue) after their given queue_at time has passed.

One other thing to note is that insertion into the delayed queue is O(log(n)) since the jobs are stored in a redis sorted set (zset). I can't imagine this being an issue for someone since redis is stupidly fast even at log(n), but full disclosure is always best.

Removing Delayed Jobs

If you have the need to cancel a delayed job, you can do like so:

# after you've enqueued a job like:
Resque.enqueue_at(5.days.from_now, SendFollowUpEmail, :user_id => current_user.id)
# remove the job with exactly the same parameters:
Resque.remove_delayed(SendFollowUpEmail, :user_id => current_user.id)

If you need to cancel a delayed job based on some matching arguments, but don't wish to specify each argument from when the job was created, you can do like so:

# after you've enqueued a job like:
Resque.enqueue_at(5.days.from_now, SendFollowUpEmail, :account_id => current_account.id, :user_id => current_user.id)
# remove jobs matching just the account:
Resque.remove_delayed_selection { |args| args[0]['account_id'] == current_account.id }
# or remove jobs matching just the user:
Resque.remove_delayed_selection { |args| args[0]['user_id'] == current_user.id }

If you need to cancel a delayed job based on some matching arguments AND by which class the job is, but don't wish to specify each argument from when the job was created, you can do like so:

# after you've enqueued a job like:
Resque.enqueue_at(5.days.from_now, SendFollowUpEmail, :account_id => current_account.id, :user_id => current_user.id)
# remove jobs matching just the account and that were of the class SendFollowUpEmail:
Resque.remove_delayed_selection(SendFollowUpEmail) { |args| args[0]['account_id'] == current_account.id }
# or remove jobs matching just the user and that were of the class SendFollowUpEmail:
Resque.remove_delayed_selection(SendFollowUpEmail) { |args| args[0]['user_id'] == current_user.id }

If you need to enqueue immediately a delayed job based on some matching arguments, but don't wish to specify each argument from when the job was created, you can do like so:

# after you've enqueued a job like:
Resque.enqueue_at(5.days.from_now, SendFollowUpEmail, :account_id => current_account.id, :user_id => current_user.id)
# enqueue immediately jobs matching just the account:
Resque.enqueue_delayed_selection { |args| args[0]['account_id'] == current_account.id }
# or enqueue immediately jobs matching just the user:
Resque.enqueue_delayed_selection { |args| args[0]['user_id'] == current_user.id }
Updating Delayed Jobs

Previously delayed jobs may be delayed even further into the future like so:

# after you've enqueued a job like:
Resque.enqueue_at(1.minute.from_now, SendNotifications, :user_id => current_user.id)
# delay running the job until two minutes from now
Resque.delay_or_enqueue_at(2.minutes.from_now, SendNotifications, :user_id => current_user.id)

You don't need to worry if a matching job has already been queued, because if no matching jobs are found a new job is created and enqueued as if you had called enqueue_at. This means you don't need any special conditionals to know if a job has already been queued. You simply create the job like so:

Resque.delay_or_enqueue_at(1.minute.from_now, SendNotifications, :user_id => current_user.id)

If multiple matching jobs are found, all of the matching jobs will be updated to have the same timestamp even if their original timestamps were not the same.

# enqueue multiple jobs with different delay timestamps
Resque.enqueue_at(1.minute.from_now, SendNotifications, :user_id => current_user.id)
Resque.enqueue_at(2.minutes.from_now, SendNotifications, :user_id => current_user.id)

# delay running the two jobs until 5 minutes from now
Resque.delay_or_enqueue_at(5.minutes.from_now, SendNotifications, :user_id => current_user.id)

The most useful case for increasing the delay of an already delayed job is to batch together work based on multiple events. For example, if you wanted to send a notification email to a user when an event triggers but didn't want to send 10 emails if many events happened within a short period, you could use this technique to delay the noficication email until no events have triggered for a period of time. This way you could send 1 email containing the 10 notifications once no events have triggered for 2 minutes. You could implement this like so:

# Send a notification when an event is created.
# app/models/event.rb
after_commit on: :create do
  Resque.delay_or_enqueue_in(2.minutes, SendNotifications, :user_id => user.id)

When the first event is created a job will be scheduled to send unsent notifications to the associated user. If another event is created within the 2 minute window, the timer will be reset to 2 minutes. This will continue as long as new events are created for the specific user before the 2 minute timer expires. Once the timer expires and the job is scheduled any new events that are created will schedule a new job and start the process over. By adjusting the window you can tweak the trade-off between sending notification emails quickly after an event happens and sending fewer emails.

Read more in the original PR

Scheduled Jobs (Recurring Jobs)

Scheduled (or recurring) jobs are logically no different than a standard cron job. They are jobs that run based on a schedule which can be static or dynamic.

Static schedules

Static schedules are set when resque-scheduler starts by passing a schedule file to resque-scheduler initialization like this (see Installation above for a more complete example):

Resque.schedule = YAML.load_file('your_resque_schedule.yml')

If a static schedule is not set resque-scheduler will issue a "Schedule empty!" warning on startup, but despite that warning setting a static schedule is totally optional. It is possible to use only dynamic schedules (see below).

The schedule file is a list of Resque job classes with arguments and a schedule frequency (in crontab syntax). The schedule is just a hash, but is usually stored in a YAML like this:

  cron: "*/5 * * * *"

  cron: "0 0 * * *"
  # you can use rufus-scheduler "every" syntax in place of cron if you prefer
  # every: 1h
  # By default the job name (hash key) will be taken as worker class name.
  # If you want to have a different job name and class name, provide the 'class' option
  class: "QueueDocuments"
  queue: high
  description: "This job queues all content for indexing in solr"

  cron: "30 6 * * 1"
  class: "ClearLeaderboards"
  queue: low
  args: contributors
  description: "This job resets the weekly leaderboard for contributions"

If you would like to setup a job that is executed manually you can configure like this in your YAML file.

  custom_job_class: 'AmazonMws::ImportOrdersJob'
  never: "* * * * *"
  queue: high
  description: "This is a manual job for importing orders."
    days_in_arrears: 7

The queue value is optional, but if left unspecified resque-scheduler will attempt to get the queue from the job class, which means it needs to be defined. If you're getting "uninitialized constant" errors, you probably need to either set the queue in the schedule or require your jobs in your "resque:setup" rake task.

You can provide options to "every" or "cron" via Array:

    - "30s"
    - :first_in: '120s'
  class: "CheckDaemon"
  queue: daemons
  description: "This job will check Daemon every 30 seconds after 120 seconds after start"

IMPORTANT: Rufus every syntax will calculate jobs scheduling time starting from the moment of deploy, resulting in resetting schedule time on every deploy, so it's probably a good idea to use it only for frequent jobs (like every 10-30 minutes), otherwise - when you use something like every 20h and deploy once-twice per day - it will schedule the job for 20 hours from deploy, resulting in a job to never be run.

NOTE: Six parameter cron's are also supported (as they supported by rufus-scheduler which powers the resque-scheduler process). This allows you to schedule jobs per second (ie: "30 * * * * *" would fire a job every 30 seconds past the minute).

A big shout out to rufus-scheduler for handling the heavy lifting of the actual scheduling engine.

Queue with parameters

It's possible to specify parameters, that must be given by the user when they manually queue the job. To enable this feature add parameters key to scheduled job definition.

  cron: "0 0 * * *"
  class: "QueueDocuments"
  queue: high
    foo: "bar"
    a: "b"
      description: "value of foo"
      default: "baz"

  description: "This job queues all content for indexing in solr"

One can use following options for each parameter:

  • description - tooltip to be shown next to the parameter input
  • default - prefilled value in the parameter input

NOTE: When sheduling the job, parameters are merged into job args. Assuming the example above and default parametr value, the job will be run with the following args:

{"foo"=>"baz", "a"=>"b"}

NOTE: If user leaves the parameter value empty, it'll be sent as empty string.

Dynamic schedules

Dynamic schedules are programmatically set on a running resque-scheduler. Most rufus-scheduler options are supported when setting schedules. Specifically the overlap option will not work.

Dynamic schedules are not enabled by default. To be able to dynamically set schedules, you must pass the following to resque-scheduler initialization (see Installation above for a more complete example):

Resque::Scheduler.dynamic = true

NOTE: In order to delete dynamic schedules via resque-web in the "Schedule" tab, you must include the Rack::MethodOverride middleware (in config.ru or equivalent).

Dynamic schedules allow for greater flexibility than static schedules as they can be set, unset or changed without having to restart resque-scheduler. You can specify, if the schedule must survive a resque-scheduler restart or not. This is done by setting the persist configuration for the schedule: it is a boolean value, if set the schedule will persist a restart. By default, a schedule will not be persisted.

The job to be scheduled must be a valid Resque job class.

For example, suppose you have a SendEmail job which sends emails. The perform method of the job receives a string argument with the email subject. To run the SendEmail job every hour starting five minutes from now, you can do:

name = 'send_emails'
config = {}
config[:class] = 'SendEmail'
config[:args] = 'POC email subject'
config[:every] = ['1h', {first_in: 5.minutes}]
config[:persist] = true
Resque.set_schedule(name, config)

Schedules can later be removed by passing their name to the remove_schedule method:

name = 'send_emails'

Schedule names are unique; i.e. two dynamic schedules cannot have the same name. If set_schedule is passed the name of an existing schedule, that schedule is updated. E.g. if after setting the above schedule we want the job to run every day instead of every hour from now on, we can do:

name = 'send_emails'
config = {}
config[:class] = 'SendEmail'
config[:args] = 'POC email subject'
config[:every] = '1d'
Resque.set_schedule(name, config)
Time zones

If you use the cron syntax, by default it is interpreted in the server time zone. You can explicitly specify the time zone that rufus-scheduler will use:

cron: "30 6 * * 1 Europe/Stockholm"

In Rails, config.time_zone will be used to determine the time zone for resque-scheduler.

Note that config.time_zone allows for a shorthand (e.g. "Stockholm") that rufus-scheduler does not accept, so make sure it's the right format, e.g. with:


A future version of resque-scheduler may do this for you.


Similar to the before_enqueue- and after_enqueue-hooks provided in Resque (>= 1.19.1), your jobs can specify one or more of the following hooks:

  • before_schedule: Called with the job args before a job is placed on the delayed queue. If the hook returns false, the job will not be placed on the queue.
  • after_schedule: Called with the job args after a job is placed on the delayed queue. Any exception raised propagates up to the code with queued the job.
  • before_delayed_enqueue: Called with the job args after the job has been removed from the delayed queue, but not yet put on a normal queue. It is called before before_enqueue-hooks, and on the same job instance as the before_enqueue-hooks will be invoked on. Return values are ignored.
  • on_enqueue_failure: Called with the job args and the exception that was raised while enqueueing a job to resque or external application fails. Return values are ignored. For example:
  Resque::Scheduler.failure_handler = ExceptionHandlerClass
Support for resque-status (and other custom jobs)

Some Resque extensions like resque-status use custom job classes with a slightly different API signature. Resque-scheduler isn't trying to support all existing and future custom job classes, instead it supports a schedule flag so you can extend your custom class and make it support scheduled job.

Let's pretend we have a JobWithStatus class called FakeLeaderboard

class FakeLeaderboard < Resque::JobWithStatus
  def perform
    # do something and keep track of the status

And then a schedule:

  cron: "30 6 * * 1"
  queue: scoring
  custom_job_class: "FakeLeaderboard"
  rails_env: demo
  description: "This job will auto-create leaderboards for our online demo and the status will update as the worker makes progress"

If your extension doesn't support scheduled job, you would need to extend the custom job class to support the #scheduled method:

module Resque
  class JobWithStatus
    # Wrapper API to forward a Resque::Job creation API call into
    # a JobWithStatus call.
    def self.scheduled(queue, klass, *args)

Redundancy and Fail-Over

>= 2.0.1 only. Prior to 2.0.1, it is not recommended to run multiple resque-scheduler processes and will result in duplicate jobs.

You may want to have resque-scheduler running on multiple machines for redundancy. Electing a master and failover is built in and default. Simply run resque-scheduler on as many machine as you want pointing to the same redis instance and schedule. The scheduler processes will use redis to elect a master process and detect failover when the master dies. Precautions are taken to prevent jobs from potentially being queued twice during failover even when the clocks of the scheduler machines are slightly out of sync (or load affects scheduled job firing time). If you want the gory details, look at Resque::Scheduler::Locking.

If the scheduler process(es) goes down for whatever reason, the delayed items that should have fired during the outage will fire once the scheduler process is started back up again (regardless of it being on a new machine). Missed scheduled jobs, however, will not fire upon recovery of the scheduler process. Think of scheduled (recurring) jobs as cron jobs - if you stop cron, it doesn't fire missed jobs once it starts back up.

You might want to share a redis instance amongst multiple Rails applications with different scheduler with different config yaml files. If this is the case, normally, only one will ever run, leading to undesired behaviour. To allow different scheduler configs run at the same time on one redis, you can either namespace your redis connections, or supply an environment variable to split the shared lock key resque-scheduler uses thus:


resque-web Additions

Resque-scheduler also adds two tabs to the resque-web UI. One is for viewing (and manually queueing) the schedule and one is for viewing pending jobs in the delayed queue.

The Schedule tab:

The Schedule Tab

The Delayed tab:

The Delayed Tab

How do I get the schedule tabs to show up???

To get these to show up you need to pass a file to resque-web to tell it to include the resque-scheduler plugin and the resque-schedule server extension to the resque-web sinatra app. Unless you're running redis on localhost, you probably already have this file. It probably looks something like this:

require 'resque' # include resque so we can configure it
Resque.redis = "redis_server:6379" # tell Resque where redis lives

Now, you want to add the following:

# This will make the tabs show up.
require 'resque-scheduler'
require 'resque/scheduler/server'

That should make the scheduler tabs show up in resque-web.

You'll want to make sure you load the schedule in this file as well. Something like this:

Resque.schedule = YAML.load_file(File.join(RAILS_ROOT, 'config/resque_schedule.yml')) # load the schedule

Now make sure you're passing that file to resque-web like so:

resque-web ~/yourapp/config/resque_config.rb

Running in the background

There are scenarios where it's helpful for the resque worker to run itself in the background (usually in combination with PIDFILE). Use the BACKGROUND option so that rake will return as soon as the worker is started.

$ PIDFILE=./resque-scheduler.pid BACKGROUND=yes \
    rake resque:scheduler


There are several options to toggle the way scheduler logs its actions. They are toggled by environment variables:

  • QUIET will stop logging anything. Completely silent.
  • VERBOSE opposite of 'QUIET'; will log even debug information
  • LOGFILE specifies the file to write logs to. (default standard output)
  • LOGFORMAT specifies either "text" or "json" output format (default "text")

All of these variables are optional and will be given the following default values:

Resque::Scheduler.configure do |c|
  c.quiet = false
  c.verbose = false
  c.logfile = nil # meaning all messages go to $stdout
  c.logformat = 'text'

Polling frequency

You can pass a RESQUE_SCHEDULER_INTERVAL option which is an integer or float representing the polling frequency. The default is 5 seconds, but for a semi-active app you may want to use a smaller value.

$ RESQUE_SCHEDULER_INTERVAL=1 rake resque:scheduler

NOTE This value was previously INTERVAL but was renamed to RESQUE_SCHEDULER_INTERVAL to avoid clashing with the interval Resque uses for its jobs.

Plagiarism alert

This was intended to be an extension to resque and so resulted in a lot of the code looking very similar to resque, particularly in resque-web and the views. I wanted it to be similar enough that someone familiar with resque could easily work on resque-scheduler.


Working on resque-scheduler requires the following:

  • A relatively modern Ruby interpreter
  • bundler

The development setup looks like this, which is roughly the same thing that happens on Travis CI and Appveyor:

# Install everything
bundle install

# Make sure tests are green before you change stuff
bundle exec rubocop && bundle exec rake
# Change stuff
# Repeat

If you have vagrant installed, there is a development box available that requires no plugins or external provisioners:

vagrant up

Deployment Notes

It is recommended that a production deployment of resque-scheduler be hosted on a dedicated Redis database. While making and managing scheduled tasks, resque-scheduler currently scans the entire Redis keyspace, which may cause latency and stability issues if resque-scheduler is hosted on a Redis instance storing a large number of keys (such as those written by a different system hosted on the same Redis instance).

Compatibility Notes

Different versions of the redis and rufus-scheduler gems are needed depending on your version of resque-scheduler. This is typically not a problem with resque-scheduler itself, but when mixing dependencies with an existing application.

This table explains the version requirements for redis gem

resque-scheduler redis gem
~> 2.0 >= 3.0.0
>= 0.0.1 ~> 1.3

This table explains the version requirements for rufus-scheduler

resque-scheduler rufus-scheduler
~> 4.0 ~> 3.0
< 4.0 ~> 2.0







*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the resque-scheduler README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.